WHY IT IS IMPORTANT TO HAVE AVAILABLE TRANSPLANT IN VIVO MODELS?
i/Because it is not possible to do all the necessary experimental trials in human beings.
ii/ Because the experimental models allow comparative studies since it is possible.
a/ to equal and fix conditions (environmental, race, sex, treatment, etc…)
b/ to isolate variables
c/ to assess mechanisms
It is important for the animals and for the trial success to guaranty the welfare of the experimental animals (legislation).
DIFERENCIES BETWEEN HUMAN AND RAT KIDNEY TRANSPLANT
i/ The methodology of rat renal transplant is very similar to that of humans but this last is different from rat in:
a/ either the right or left kidney is grafted (the one available)
b/ the kidney is gafted heterotopically into the iliac space
c/ the recipient kidneys are not nephrectomized
In contrast, in rat:
a/ the left kidney is always the one transplanted because it is anatomically easier: the left renal vessels are longer than the right ones, in rat;
b/ it is orthotopically grafted into the abdominal vessels below the native kidney.
c/ both native kidneys are nephrectomized to allow the study of the renal function of the graft.
ii/ Survival is the priority in humans, thus patients are dialyzed if necessary.
In rats, the priority is the functional study of the kidney graft, thus survival is only another variable to assess. In addition, despite it was sometimes necessary, it is not possible to dialyze a rat.